Analysis of Filtration Efficiency of Activated Carbon Coated Sand Beds

Geeta Singh, Ishan Sahajpal

Abstract


Sourcing the clean water has remained of the great importance ever since the civilisation has come into the existence. Continuous efforts are being made to find out the innovative methods and techniques to treat water efficiently and economically. In this study, an attempt is made to make efficient water filter, to be used at large scale in water treatment plants, economically and commercially viable. It is made from activated carbon coated sand acquired from thermal degradation of sugar on river sand particles. The carbon coated sand is activated by chemical treatment. It is found that filter function satisfactorily in removing the TDS and dissolved organics from polluted water. The high concentration of carbon on sand have better adsorption power (15% sugar on sand is better than 5% sugar in sand) and higher the number of passes through filter facilitate the better results. Though “ordinary sand” used in conventional systems is good in removing organics but do not removes inorganic dissolved particles. It also could be done by this type of filters. Higher amount of chemicals used in every sector reach back to the prime sources of water. Which requires to be “re-treated” by water treatment plants. Thus, it becomes a necessity to find out innovative techniques to treat water.

Keywords


Adsorption, Activated sand, Filtration, Organics, Sand bed, TDS

Full Text:

PDF

References


S S Gupta, Sreeprasad TS, Maliyekkal SM et al.

“Graphene from Sugar and its application in Water

Purification”. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2012; 4: 4156-

Pradeep T. Anshup. Noble metal nanoparticles for

water purification: A critical review. Thin Solid Films

; 517(24), 6441−6478.

Gupta R. Kulkarni GU. Removal of Organic Compounds

from Water by Using a Gold Nanoparticle–

Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Nanocomposite Foam.

ChemSusChem 2011; 4(6): 737−743.

Matheson LJ. Tratnyek PG. Reductive Dehalogenation

of Chlorinated Methanes by Iron Metal. Environ Sci

Technol 1994; 28(12): 2045−2053.

Bootharaju MS. Pradeep T. Understanding the

Degradation Pathway of the Pesticide, Chlorpyrifos

by Noble Metal Nanoparticles. Langmuir 2012; 28,

−2679.

Goyal M, Bhagat M, Dhawan RJ. Removal of mercury

from water by fixed bed activated carbon columns.

Hazard J Hazard Mater 2009, 171(1-3): 1009−1015.

Hager DG. Activated carbon used for large scale water

treatment. Environ Sci Technol 1967; 1(4): 287−291.

Ghosh PK, Philip LJ. Performance Evaluation of

Waste Activated Carbon on Atrazine Removal from

Contaminated Water. Environ Sci Health 2005; 40(3):

−441.

Zhang S, Xiao-yan L, Paul Chen J. Preparation and

evaluation of a magnetite-doped activated carbon

fiber for enhanced arsenic removal. Carbon 2010;

(1): 60-7.

Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV et al. Electric field

effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 2004;

(5696): 666-9.

Goyal M, Bhagat M, Dhawan RJ. Removal of mercury

from water by fixed bed activated carbon columns. J

Hazard Mater 2009; 171: 1009-15.

Ghosh PK, Philip L. Performance evaluation of

waste activated carbon on atrazine removal from

contaminated water. J Environ Sci Health 2005; 40:

-41.

Semião AJC, Schäfer AIJ. Removal of adsorbing

estrogenic micropollutants by nanofiltration

membranes. Membr Sci 2011; 381: 132-41.

Al-Rifai JH, Khabbaz H, Schäfer AI. Technol. Removal of

pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds

in a water recycling process using reverse osmosis

systems. Separation and Purification Technology 2011;

: 60-7.

Ruan G, Sun Z, Peng Z et al. Growth of graphene from

food, insects, and waste. ACS Nano 2011; 5(9): 7601-7.

Ruiz-Hitzky E, Darder M, Fernandes FM et al. Supported

graphene from natural resources: easy preparation

and applications. Adv Mater 2011; 23(44): 5250-5.

Van Oss CJ. A review of: active carbon. Journal of

Dispersion Science and Technology 1990; 11(3).

Ahmadpour A, Do D. The preparation of active carbons

from coal by chemical and physical activation. Carbon

; 34(4): 471-9.

Ehrburger P, Addoun A, Addoun F et al. Carbonization

of coals in the presence of alkaline hydroxides and

carbonates: formation of activated carbons. Fuel 1986;

(10): 1447-9.

Hu Z, Vansant EF. Chemical activation of elutrilithe

producing carbon-aluminosilicate composite

adsorbent. Carbon 1995; 33(9): 1293-300.

Haimour NM, Emeish S. Utilization of date stones for

production of activated carbon using phosphoric acid.

Waste Manag 2006; 26(6): 651-60.

Metcalf & Eddy Inc, Tchobanoglous G, Burton FL et

al. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Resource

Recovery. McGraw-Hill Education, 2013.

Plappally AK, Yakub I, Brown LC et al. Physical properties

of porous clay ceramic-ware. J Eng Mater Technol 2011,

(3): 031004.

Puziy AM, Poddubnaya OI, Martinez-Alonso A et al.

Synthetic carbons activated with phosphoric acid: I.

Surface chemistry and ion binding properties. Carbon

; 40(9): 1493-505.

Philip ChA, Girgis BS. Adsorption capacities of activated

carbons derived from rice. J Chem Technol Biotechnol

; 67: 248.

Rashwan WE, Girgis BE. Adsorption capacities of

activated carbons derived from rice straw and water

hyacinth in the removal of organic pollutants from

water. Adsorption Science and Technology 2004; 22(3):

-94.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.