Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant of Ziziphus Spina-Christi Bark and Leaves Extracts

Ali Abdella Eltayeib, Mohamed Adam

Abstract


The aim of the study was to identify chemical composition; antimicrobial and antioxidant of Sidr bark and leaves crude extracts. The bark and leaves were collected from a garden house in El-Obeid city, North Kordofan State, during June (2017) dried under shade, grinded and then extracted by maceration method using 99% ethanol and distilled water. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and tannins with high concentration except flavonoids with low concentration in water extracts. Crude extracts at concentrations 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/ml were applied against four bacterial strains (two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis (NCTC 8236), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923); and two Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pesudomonasaeruginosa(ATCC 27853). using the agar plate well-diffusion method. Tetracycline ( 40, 20, 10 and 5 mg/ml) was used as a standard with the tested bacteria. Crude extracts with concentration of 100mg/ml were applied against one type of fungous (Candida albicans (ATCC 7596). Bark extracts with different concentrations showed the highest activity against all tested bacterial strains. The highest growth inhibition zone diameter was obtained against Escherichia coli (39 mm) and Pesudomonasaeruginosa (35mm). The water extract of the leaves at 80 mg/ ml was sensitive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18mm). The water and ethanol extracts of the leaves at 40 mg/ml were found to be more active against Escherichia coli (23mm). The plant extracts showed no activity against Candida albicans. Compared to the reference antibiotic, the bark extracts exhibited broader spectrum of antibacterial activity. The free radical scavenging activity of the crude extracts was evaluated using 2,2-Di(4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picryl hydrazyl stable free radical (DPPH).The extracts showed a DPPH scavenging activity of 3.0±0.03, 75.8±0.01(for leaves extracted by water and ethanol respectively) and 62.1±0.11, 89.5±0.07 (for bark extracted by water and ethanol respectively). The standard (Propyl gallate) showed 90.6±0.08 activity. Analysis of the crude extracts by GC-MS showed (35 and 15 compounds) for leaves and bark ethanol extracts respectively.

Keywords


Ziziphus spina-christi, Bark, Leaves, Antimicrobial

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References


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