Effect of Some Natural Essential Oils on French Bread Properties and Fungal Growth
Aims: Study the effect of parsley, rocket and thyme essential oils on French bread properties and the shelf life as well. The other aim was to investigate the antifungal effect of three essential oils; against the most important moulds in terms of spoilage of French bread such as (Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Penicillium, Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus parasiticus). The results: A 50µl, 75µl and 100µl/100g of pure essential oils were applied in dough French bread and the produced bread samples were evaluated in terms of fungal contamination by following the fungal growth during the storage period. The effect of three essential oils additions to dough French bread on sensory, staling, chemical, physical and rheological properties were studied. The tested essential oils have the ability as antifungal activity and maintaining the shelf life of French bread. Rocket and thyme oils had abundant effect followed by parsley, and could be delayed the growth of fungi in French bread and subsequently increase the shelf life for six days. The sensory evaluation of the produced French bread was no significant differences compared with control samples. It is worthy to mention that the addition of tested essential oils delayed the staling property of French bread, also the chemical, physical and rheological properties of produced French bread were improved. Conclusion: Three essential oils showed a potent antifungal effect against the more common fungi causing spoilage of French bread. Significance and Impact of the Study: The impact of parsley, rocket seeds and thyme leaves essential oils as preservative agents in French bread is very high through the decrease of bread deterioration and economic losses as well.
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